Quote of the Day

The greatest weakness in the Greeks’ case to retrieve the marbles from Britain was always the lack of a suitable museum. Tschumi’s museum is the strongest card the Greeks have yet played.

Stephen Phillips, Building Design magazine

June 26, 2005

Feldmann case legal details

Posted at 5:43 pm in British Museum, Elgin Marbles, Similar cases

Some of the online legal journals have now covered the Feldman case that has been discussed in detail here previously. These new reports do bring to light a few points that were not mentioned in the other reports of the case, such as the fact that there is a possibility of a compromise, whereby the British Museum could acknowledge that due to their legality, it could be claimed that the four paintings were never legally a part of the British Museum’s collection – in which case the de-accessioning rules would not apply.

Incorporated council of law reporting

Attorney General v Trustees of the British Museum
Ch D: Sir Andrew Morritt V-C: 27 May 2005

Under s 3(4) of the British Museum Act 1963 the Trustees of the British Museum were prohibited from returning an object which formed part of the collections of the museum to a previous owner of the object, notwithstanding that because of the circumstances leading up to the acquisition of the object, there was a moral obligation to do so.
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June 22, 2005

The quality of the preserved west frieze

Posted at 1:02 pm in British Museum, Elgin Marbles

In response to the letter in the Times from Paul Chishick, Chris Price points out the high quality of the surface of the newly restored pieces on display in the Acropolis Museum in Athens.

The Times

June 22, 2005
Marbles not lost
From Mr Chris Price

Sir, I disagree with Mr Paul Chishick’s assertion (letter, June 16) that the survival of the Parthenon Marbles is due to storage in the British Museum.

The West Frieze of the Parthenon was long thought to have been ruined by time and pollution. It is now amazingly preserved under cover, right down to the veins on the flanks of the horses.

Those in Bloomsbury had their patina scrubbed white in the 1930s, almost certainly to satisfy the cleanliness fetish of the gallery’s generous donor, Joseph Duveen.

(Vice-chairman, British Committee for the Reunification of the Parthenon Marbles)
Dulwich, London

June 19, 2005

Poor security keeps Iraq museum closed

Posted at 6:18 pm in Similar cases

While many countries are asking for the return of artefacts looted from them in the past, other museums have to use armed guards to deter modern day looters.
The countries that are indirectly responsible for the looting are the same as 100 years ago, but fortunately now, the media & public opinion is paying far more attention to the situation & how it should be resolved than ever happened in the past.

Al Jazeera

Poor security shuts Iraqi museum
Friday 17 June 2005, 10:04 Makka Time, 7:04 GMT

Iraq Museum director Donny George takes security a bit more seriously than most other museum heads would.

Books on his shelves summarise his struggle: Institutional Trauma: Major Change in Museums and its Effect on Staff, Museum Security and Protection and Moving the Mountain: A Guide to Moving Collections.

“I tell the guards, if they shoot one bullet, then you shoot 100. We must show that the place is well-protected.”
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June 18, 2005

Admiral Lord Nelson & the Elgin Marbles

Posted at 10:13 pm in Elgin Marbles

A story has been running in Kathimerini (the Greek language newspaper, not the smaller English language edition) about a letter by Admiral Lord Nelson. The letter was discovered in a museum at the American Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. The letter refers to Lord Elgin & also to 28 boxes of ancient sculpture from Athens.
At the end of the article, they also point out that Greek Prime Minister Costas Karamanlis is due to meet Tony Blair on 30th June.

The three original Greek language articles that describe the story in more depth were published on 12th June, 14th June & 16th June.


Saturday June 18, 2005
Letter from Nelson about Parthenon Marbles

Kathimerini reader Elli Vassilikioti was visiting the small museum of the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, when she caught sight of a framed letter signed Nelson V Bronte. When she examined it more closely, she noticed that it resembled the writing of Lord Nelson, the hero of Abukir and vanquisher of Napoleon’s army. What caught her attention was the reference to Lord Elgin and the 28 boxes of ancient sculpture from Athens, which he took when he captured the Arab French corvette. Read the rest of this entry »

More coverage of the returned Kouros

Posted at 6:48 pm in Similar cases

Following the coverage by the Guardian on the Kouros returned to Samos by James Ede, another article has appeared in the Guardian copies of which have appeared in many regional papers across the US.
Athens News Agency have also covered the story.

The Guardian

Return of statue raises hopes in Greece
Helena Smith in Athens
Friday June 17, 2005
The Guardian

He’s got a broken nose, has been called ugly, and is barely 12cm tall. But that is not stopping Greeks welcomed the return from London of a 6th century BC bronze kouros, seized from the Aegean island of Samos by Nazi looters 60 years ago.

Yesterday, as the statue was unveiled at a ceremony in Athens, Greece’s culture minister Fani Palli-Petrallia said she hoped its repatriation would finally send a message to the British Museum.
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Care of the Elgin Marbles & museum opening hours

Posted at 6:38 pm in British Museum, Elgin Marbles

Following on from the letter in The Times last week connecting the return of the Elgin Marbles with Britain’s 2012 Olympic Bid, there is a response claiming that what Elgin did was right as otherwise the marbles would not have survived.
This does not explain the high quality of the newly cleaned & restored frieze sections that went on display in the Acropolis Museum last year.

The Times

June 16, 2005
Marbles not lost
From Mr Paul Chishick

Sir, If the Reverend Dr Nicholas W. S. Cranfield (letter, June 10) advocates the adoption of the Ancient Greek codes of xenia (hospitality), surely Lord Elgin’s actions are entirely justified? As we see in the Odyssey, the principal purpose of travel for nobles of the Homeric Age was the acquisition of treasure — whether it be by pillage or exchange of gifts.

As for the inconvenience of the British Museum, it does not charge admission. Greek sites (which do) are often, in my experience, closed with little notice. The very survival of the Elgin Marbles is due to their storage here, as can be seen by comparison with the caryatids left on the Acropolis.

University College, Oxford

June 16, 2005

Kouros stolen in WWII is returned to Samos

Posted at 8:46 pm in Greece Archaeology, Similar cases

A couple of weeks ago, an art dealer discovered that a kouros that he had purchased had been taken illegally from Greece during the war. He decided to return it, & earlier today the statue was welcomed back by the island’s museum.
The art dealer, James Ede is president of the chairman of the International Association of Dealers in Ancient Art

The Guardian

Greek Statue Stolen During WWII Returned
Thursday June 16, 2005 5:01 PM
AP Photo ATH101
Associated Press Writer

ATHENS, Greece (AP) – Authorities cheered the return Thursday of a tiny, 2,600-year-old statue stolen during World War II, and said the news should offer hope to antiquity officials in Iraq as well.

They also said the statue’s return should send a message to the British Museum, which currently has the Parthenon Marbles – a collection of Greek sculptures taken from the Parthenon in 1811.
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June 15, 2005

China continues campaign to buy back looted artefacts

Posted at 10:21 pm in Similar cases

Zhang Yongnian continues his project to buy many of the artefacts looted from China between 1840 & 1949. As I have previously indicated, this method of retrieving the artefacts is one that few western museums would consider ethically acceptable even if they did have the money available to carry out such a plan.

China Daily

Reclaiming cultural relics from overseas
China Daily Updated: 2005-06-14 06:02

Cultural relic experts and NGOs have set the wheels in motion to begin reclaiming China’s national treasures from abroad, said an article in Beijing Review. The following are excerpts from the article:

On April 11, the China Cultural Relics Recovery Programme, funded by the China Foundation for the Development of Folklore Culture announced a large-scale programme to reclaim Chinese cultural relics scattered around the world.
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Pressure to allow deaccessioning grows

Posted at 10:14 pm in British Museum

Following the Feldmann case that highlights the poorly thought out nature of the anti-deaccessioning clauses in the British Museum Act, a report by the Museums Association highlights the same issue, but for entirely different reasons.
Museums collections are getting larger & larger with every new acquisition that they make & the amount of the collection that is never seen by the public also grows.
With museums that are funded by public money, is it acceptable for so much of their collections to be inaccessible the people who are paying for it? Should people be questioning the money spent on new acquisitions, while they only have the space to display a small percentage of what they already own?

The Times

June 14, 2005
Let your treasures see the light of day, museums told
By Dalya Alberge, Arts Correspondent

TOO many museum collections are stashed away in storerooms, according to a damning report published yesterday.

Museums are failing to realise the full potential of their collections and must ensure that they really are for everyone, a study by the Museums Association concluded. Jane Glaister, chair of the report’s steering committee, said: “If an object sits in a store for ten years, without anyone looking at it, and if it is not published or made available on the internet, can that museum be realising its responsibilities towards the object and towards the public?”
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June 11, 2005

Ethiopia, repatriation & cultural memory

Posted at 2:43 pm in Similar cases

Following the request by Ethiopia for the return of many of their cultural treasures, now held in European museums and Institutions, Richard Pankhurst has written an article refuting some of the anti-restitution arguments put forward by the west.
Whils I have always argued that every restitution case is different, many of the concepts he describes are universal & apply just as much to the Elgin Marbles as they do to Ethiopian Manuscripts.

Addis Tribune (Addis Ababa, Ethipoia)

Some Thoughts on Repatriation and Cultural Memory
By Richard Pankhurst

People who live differently, as we know, think differently.

Thieves and robbers think differently from the people from whom they have stolen and robbed.

And more relevant to today’s Reflections:

Those whose countries have inherited loot from other countries tend to be complacent, and to think differently from those whose ancestors were plundered.
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Vijay Mallya & the re-acquisition of Indian artefacts

Posted at 2:18 pm in Similar cases

The Times of India has been following the actions of the wealthy Vijay Mallya as he tries to acquire treasures that once belonged to Tipu Sultan, but were taken from India by the British.
The articles are interesting, not just in the parallels that they draw to Elgin Marbles, but also in the almost identical arguments used against the return of artefacts to India.
The three articles fit into the categories of Θέση, Αντίθεση, Σύνθεση (the argument, the counter argument & the sum of the arguments – thesis, antithesis, synthesis – a phrase used by Nikos Kazantzakis in the book Αγγλία where he describes his visit to the British Museum)
In many ways though the cases are completely different; Vijay Mallya is an individual repurchasing items that left the country but have been made available at auction. There is dispute over the legality of how the articles left India originally & who they should belong to (as described in the first article). However, there was an opportunity for the artefacts to be re-acquired by India when they were auctioned on the open market – something that has never been a possibility with the Elgin Marbles.

Times of India

Tipu is the Sultan of Sotheby’s
IANS[ THURSDAY, MAY 26, 2005 08:10:49 PM ]
LONDON: Sixty-four artefacts belonging Tipu Sultan fetched ₤ 1.23 million after some hectic bidding at a controversial Sotheby’s auction.

The chief attraction, a gold-inlaid sporting gun belonging to 18th century Indian ruler and decorated with his signature, the roaring tiger, was sold for ₤ 100,000 to an anonymous telephone bidder.
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The Elgin Marbles & the 2012 Olympic bid

Posted at 11:16 am in British Museum, Elgin Marbles

There was an interesting letter in The Times yesterday about the return of the Elgin Marbles. The writer is suggesting that Britain’s bid for the 2012 Olympics would be the ideal time for Britain to return one part of Greek culture at the same time as they are hoping to represent another part of Greek culture.

The Times (London)

June 10, 2005
Olympian ideal
From the Reverend Dr Nicholas W. S. Cranfield

Sir, If London is determined to stage the Olympic Games in 2012, it might now behove Her Majesty’s Government to make a suitable propitiatory sacrifice to the gods.

To return the Elgin Marbles at this juncture would be a gesture of generosity consonant with the ancient Greek understanding of hospitality.
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